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Archive for December, 2015

angelgabrielcomingtomaryNow in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city in Galilee called Nazareth, to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the descendants of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary. And coming in, he said to her, “Greetings, favored one! The Lord is with you.”

But she was very perplexed at this statement, and kept pondering what kind of salutation this was.

The angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary; for you have found favor with God. And Behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall name Him Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give Him the throne of His father David; and He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and His kingdom will have no end.”

Mary said to the angel, “How can this be, since I am a virgin?”

The angel answered and said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; and for that reason the holy Child shall be called the Son of God. And behold, even your relative Elizabeth has also conceived a son in her old age; and she who was called barren is now in her sixth month. For nothing will be impossible with God.”

And Mary said, “Behold, the maidservant of the Lord; may it be done to me according to your word.” And the angel departed from her. (Luke 1:26-38)

At this time of the year when we remember the birth of the blessed Christ child, let us also honor His courageous parents, Joseph and Mary.

Mary has been admired universally above all women. She was truly remarkable. Sovereignly chosen by God to bear the Christ child, from among all of the women who had ever been born, she was the one who brought our Redeemer, the Messiah into the world.

Mary’s blessings and graces were given to her by God. She was an ordinary human being, like us. And yet, she showed her strong faith in God, by trusting Him with whatever He chose for her. We can look up to her for that.

We don’t know very much about Mary’s upbringing. We know that she had a sister, Salome, who was the mother of Jesus’ disciples, James and John. Of course, we also know that Mary was related to Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist. Besides this, we only know that she grew up in Nazareth as the daughter of a poor but hardworking family.

At the time of the Annunciation, Mary was probably a teenager. Back in that day, girls were often betrothed at age thirteen. Her marriage was probably arranged by the parents of Joseph, her prospective bridegroom. Joseph was a carpenter. He was also a godly and righteous man.

Now the birth of Jesus Christ was as follows: when His mother Mary had been dream of st joseph angel messengerbetrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child by the Holy Spirit.

And Joseph her husband, being a righteous man and not wanting to disgrace her, planned to send her away secretly. But when he had considered this, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife; for the Child who has been conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. She will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins.”

Now all this took place to fulfill what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet:

“Behold, the virgin shall be with child and shall bear a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel,” which translated means, “God with us.”

And Joseph awoke from his sleep and did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took Mary as his wife, but kept her a virgin until she gave birth to a Son; and he called His name Jesus. (Matthew 1:18-25)

We do not know very much about Joseph’s background. In the Scriptures Joseph shows what a godly man he was by his actions. Mary must have known what could happen to her when Joseph found out that she was pregnant. She knew that the horror of public scandal might await her. But she trusted God to take care of her. She surrendered herself unconditionally saying, “Behold, the maidservant of the Lord! Let it be to me according to your word.” (Luke 1:38) Mary did not doubt or question God. She just immediately, humbly, and joyfully submitted to God’s will. Joseph also submitted to God’s will and took Mary to be his wife.

Mary willingly followed Joseph to Bethlehem when it was time for them to enroll in a mandatory census. They knew that God was watching over this holy family.

Christ is born in a stableJesus was born in Bethlehem in a stable. It is a famous story; there was no room at the inn and so Joseph took what shelter was available to him and trusted God to protect his family. A beautiful star appeared in the East. Angels in the skies sang the praises of the newborn King.

Wise men and shepherds visited Jesus with much rejoicing.

However, there was one person who was not happy about the birth of the Savior – King Herod. Herod was intensely jealous and sensed a threat to his throne. He sent the wise men to find out exactly where Jesus was supposedly so that he could worship Jesus. Of course he was lying. The wise men were warned in a dream not to return to Herod. Herod was angry when they did not return and sent soldiers to slay every male child in the vicinity of Bethlehem who was two years old and younger.

Joseph again trusted God to help him take care of this family.

When the magi had gone, behold an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream holy family flees to egyptand said, “Get up! Take the Child and His mother and flee to Egypt, and remain there until I tell you; for Herod is going to search for the Child to destroy Him.” So Joseph got up and took the Child and His mother while it was till night, and left for Egypt. He remained there until the death of Herod. (Matthew 2:13,14)

After Herod died Joseph took Mary and Jesus back to Israel. An equally evil king was ruling in Judea so Joseph didn’t dare take the family there. They settled in Nazareth instead where their Son Jesus, entrusted to them by God, “continued to grow and become strong, increasing in wisdom; and the grace of God was upon Him” (Luke 2:40).

child Jesus in NazarethJoseph and Mary were no ordinary parents. Jesus is the Lord. Mary and Joseph understood this and nurtured Jesus as a child while worshiping Him as their Savior.

They clearly had received grace from God for this. They were ordinary people who had been given extraordinary blessings by God.

They had great faith that we should emulate, but let us be careful not to give them the adulation that only belongs to God. They were very humble and would not want anyone to venerate them as some do today. They would point us to Christ. Christ was the object of their worship. Jesus is the One we adore. He is the only One to recognize as Lord and Savior. All of their lives the parents of Jesus directed us to loving God and praising Him for His many blessings to us.

May we all remember the true meaning of the Christmas season. God bless you every one!

 

 

 

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I know that the LORD will maintain the cause of the afflicted and justice for the poor.  (Psalm 140:12)

“In a world where there is so much to be done, I felt strongly impressed that there must be something for me to do.”                                                           Dorothea Dix

By 1831 there were 24 states in the United States. Everywhere people were moved by the horrors of slavery, the treatment of Native Americans, war, alcohol abuse, poverty, and crime. Many Americans began to work on reforms in those areas.

Dorothea DixDorothea Dix contributed her efforts to reforming the treatment of the mentally ill who were often housed in prisons in horrible conditions. These poor, misunderstood people were neglected or mistreated. Dorothea called for Christians to care for the poor as the Savior did. Her campaign resulted in the building of 32 institutions in the United States where the mentally ill could be cared for in a more compassionate way.

Dorothea Lynde Dix was born on April 4, 1802 to Joseph and Mary Dix in Hampden, Maine. Today the land where she was born is called the Dorothea Dix Park. A huge stone arch stands there as a memorial commemorating Dorothea for her devotion to prison reform and the humane treatment of the insane.

Dorothea grew up in Maine when it was still unsettled and primitive. Her father was an overly zealous religious man. He forced Dorothea to sew his sermons together into books. This was in addition to helping her mother with all of the tasks that frontier women had to do to survive. It was not a happy childhood for Dorothea. When asked about her childhood she would refuse to discuss it. Instead she would say, “I never knew a childhood!”

At age 12 Dorothea was sent to live with her grandmother in Boston. Later she moved in with an aunt in Worcester, Massachusetts. Dorothea had received a basic education and was able to teach. At age 14 she began a “dame” school in her grandmother’s house in which she taught basic reading and math to 3 and 4 year olds.

At age 22 Dorothea wrote a book, “Conversations on Common Things (1824)” that went through sixty printings and yielded substantial royalties. She went on to publish several other works of religious poetry and stories that taught moral lessons to children.

Dorothea was plagued with bad health all through her life. She always drove herself really hard when she was working. Eventually the overwork caught up to her and she developed a pain in her side. When she started spitting up blood she realized it was time for her to rest. Her doctor ordered her to go to England for a cure. She left in 1836 and stayed for eighteen months with some good friends who helped her recuperate.

During her absence Dorothea’s mother and grandmother both died. This made for a very sad homecoming for Dorothea in 1837. However, Grandmother Dix had left Dorothea a small inheritance that along with her book royalties would mean that she could support herself without having to work for money.

Dorothea was thankful for this blessing but she wondered about a purpose for her life. She spent some time traveling and visiting friends but she knew that God still wanted her to be useful. She looked for ”Some nobler purpose for which to labor, something which would fill the vacuum which I felt in my soul.”

After much prayer and soul searching, about four years later, in 1841, she received a visit from John T.G. Nichols that would change her life forever.

John Nichols was in training to be a pastor. Part of his work was to teach in a women’s prison. After two sessions he decided that a mature woman would be better than a young man to teach the women and so he contacted Dorothea Dix whom he knew as a renowned teacher.

Dorothea was interested and responded, “I shall be there next Sunday.” On a freezing cold day in March, 1841 Dorothea visited the women’s prison. On a tour of the prison she discovered two poverty-stricken mentally ill women confined in cages made of rough boards. There was no heat. She asked the jailer why there wasn’t a stove in the room. He replied, “Because ‘lunatics’ don’t feel the cold.”

Outraged, Dorothea began her campaign to get stoves installed. The jailer refused and so Dorothea went before the court and with the help of influential friends got the stoves installed as well as other improvements!

Dorothea wondered how many other prisons could be so bad. She began to visit prisons outside of Boston, becoming the first person, man or woman, to conduct a major investigation of a social problem in the United States.

Dorothea had found her purpose in life.

Starting in her home state, Massachusetts, Dorothea crafted a document, called a “Memorial” that she presented to the legislature asking that the budget be increased to include money to improve the State Mental Hospital at Worcester. Many improvements were made in the state hospitals and prisons thanks to Dorothea.

Not content with just improving the conditions in hospitals and prisons  in Massachusetts, Dorothea began to visit other

New Jersey Lunatic Asylum

New Jersey Lunatic Asylum

states including Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Maryland, Louisiana, Alabama, South Carolina and North Carolina. Everywhere she went, improvements were made.

Dorothea tried to lobby at the federal level also. She asked Congress to set aside land for hospitals all through the United States. After six years of hard work the bill was passed by both houses of Congress, but vetoed by President Franklin Pierce in 1854. He stated that the issue would be better handled at the state level.

Disappointed but undeterred, Dorothea went to Europe to study their systems of caring for the poor and unfortunate. She learned much. She met Elizabeth Fry (see my post on this blog – February 2, 2012) who brought about prison reforms in England.

When Dorothea returned home the country was in the middle of turmoil over the issue of slavery. When war broke out in 1861, Dorothea volunteered to set up field hospitals. She recruited nurses and set up training programs. She was honored after the war for her untiring efforts in bringing aid to the wounded.

After the war, Dorothea continually worked for the improvement of conditions for the mentally ill. Eventually her health problems began to plague her again. An apartment had been set aside for her at the New Jersey State Lunatic Asylum. Dorothea considered it her home and there she retired when she became too ill to travel anymore in 1881. She remained there for five years and quietly died on July 17, 1887.

DLDStampCoverIn 1983, Dorothea was honored by being placed on the 1 cent stamp.

One of the most important accomplishments of Dorothea was the changing of the way that American people thought about mental illness. “It is time that people should have learnt that to be insane is not to be disgraced: that sickness is not to be ranked with crime: and that mental disability is almost invariably the result of mere bodily ailment,” she wrote. Equally important was her insistence that mental illness could be cured.

Dorothea proved by her example that willing sacrifice can accomplish much. Because of her wisdom, diligence, and compassion for the mentally ill, 32 institutions were built, laws were changed, and human suffering was alleviated. “All alike may suffer,” she wrote, “the rich and the poor, the learned and the uneducated, the young, the mature, and the aged.” Her faith and love for her fellow man and her courage in never giving up, even in spite of major health issues, are an inspiration to all that one person can make a difference.

 

 

 

 

 

 

                         

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Go where no one else will go, do what no one else will do.

 There is nothing in the universe that I fear but that I shall not know all my duty, or shall fail to do it.                                                                   Mary Lyon

Mary Mason Lyon was born on February 28, 1797 in Buckland, Massachusetts, the sixth child of Aaron and Mary Lyon
Jemima Lyon. Mary’s strong Christian faith was shaped by her New England ancestors that included ministers, deacons, and selectmen. They were solid, conservative folks, mostly farmers and craftsmen.

An intense interest in foreign missions began in her childhood years that would remain all her life. Mary longed for the day when all of the kingdoms of the world would belong to the Redeemer. Mary was really a missionary at heart as well as a teacher and would later found the first missionary society in Buckland.

Sadly, Mary’s father died when she was only five years old. Mary was able to go to school but had to quit when she was 17 in order to help support the family. Mary took a teaching position in a country school in Massachusetts. It was not unusual in those days for women to begin to teach without a college education. Mary was very bright and well able to teach young children.

In 1817 at age 20, Mary began to fulfill her dream and go to school to further her education. She paid for her education by teaching and by selling blankets that she had woven from homespun material. She attended Saunderson Academy in Ashfield and Amherst Academy in Amherst, Massachusetts. Then in 1821 at the age of 24 Mary attended the school and studied under the man that would influence her for the rest of her life, Reverend Joseph Emerson.

In 1818 Reverend Joseph Emerson founded Byfield Female Seminary. Joseph Emerson was an unusually energetic Puritan who followed the teachings of Jonathan Edwards. Because of poor health he changed from preaching to teaching and started Byfield with the help of his wife and daughter.

Joseph Emerson’s religious convictions were at the center of his teaching. He had a Biblical worldview that emphasized that every act of the mind could and should contribute to the glory of God. Mary Lyon would imbibe this faith completely and emphasize it in her own teaching along with a salvation message.

In 1824 Mary went on to start her own girls’ school back in her hometown of Buckland. Mary believed that education should be affordable for middle-class girls and kept the tuition low. The number of students grew from 25 to nearly 100. The girls helped to pay their own intuition by working while attending school. This was a “winter” school so the girls could also work and save up in the summers.

In the summers, Mary joined her friend Zilpah Grant in New Hampshire. These women set a precedent by granting diplomas to girls who graduated. Zilpah insisted that the curriculum should consist of serious subjects such as math, science, philosophy, and theology instead of the frivolous curriculum that was in many girls’ schools. The trustees of the schools were against teaching women serious subjects and also incensed at the strong Calvinistic emphasis of the women. They tried to force shallow music and dancing on the school so Zilpah and Mary quit and moved on.

The women each went their own way for a few years and then in 1830 Mary again joined Zilpah at Ipswich Female Academy. Here again the women struggled to maintain an academy that taught serious subjects. Their wish was to prepare women for higher education.

Several years later Mary began her famous labors to found an institution of higher learning for women. She traveled as far away as Detroit to examine schools. She met and learned much from Emma Willard, founder of a school in Troy, New York, also still in existence today. Emma too desired serious education for women. Mary desired to follow Emma’s model but at a more advanced level.

Mary set out to raise the money for a female seminary. She set out mostly on foot going door-to-door in small and large communities to raise the $30,000 she needed to open her school. She worked tirelessly for three years. She appealed for donations in the name of religion and based on the principle that education of the daughters of the Church called as rightfully for the free gifts of the Church as does that of her sons.

Mt. HolyokeMan people agreed with her and in spite of so many others who discouraged or disdained her efforts Mary raised the money. Male town officials in Hadley, Massachusetts donated $8,000 and so the site for Mount Holyoke Female Seminary was located there.

Mary’s main purpose for the school was religious but she also sought to give the women a practical education. She also intended to make sure that the school was a financial success. Therefore, the students did all of the domestic chores of the school themselves. Many students also obtained domestic work while attending. This enabled Mary to keep the tuition low making it possible for middle-class women to attend. Her school was a financial success even during the depression of 1837.

And, Mary had the encouragement of men like Rev. Emerson who said:

…may we not indulge the enrapturing hope, that the period is not remote, when female institutions, very greatly superior to the present, will not only exist, but be considered as important, as are now our colleges for the education of our sons. The distinguished honor is probably reserved for our rising republic, to exhibit to the world examples of such female seminaries as the world has never witnessed. But where such an institution shall be erected, by whom it shall be founded, and by whom instructed, it is yet for the hand of Providence to develop. Possibly some of our children may enjoy its advantages.

Rev. Emerson wrote these words in 1833. Three years later Mary Lyon was granted the first charter to a school of higher education for women – the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary. One year after that in September 1837 the school would officially open after the completion of the building. 80 eager young women would attend that first year. The following year 400 applicants were turned away due to lack of space. The school has grown and is still in existence today. How thankful we should be that brave men and women like Joseph Emerson and Mary Lyon fought against public sentiment and pushed for equal education for women.

For nearly twelve years Mary directed the seminary. Prayer and dedication led to many women strengthening Mount_Holyoke_in_1837their faith in Christ. Many who did not have a commitment to Christ became children of God while studying at Mount Holyoke. In the first twelve years there were sixteen hundred pupils and more than four hundred and sixty conversions.

Miss Isabel Hart wrote about Mary’s effective and generous direction of the school and especially the prime importance of salvation:

Thoroughness of instruction, firmness with gentleness of discipline, lovingness of spirit, beauty of life, bore their appropriate fruit in the type of womanhood molded by her formative hands. But peculiarly what characterized her work was her insatiate longing for that outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon her pupils which would lead to that regenerating work in their own hearts which she felt was the only true basis of Christian character. Without this, at any season and in any place, she felt her work was incomplete.

Mary’s missionary fervor was genuine. She believed that the income from Mount Holyoke belonged to the Lord. She only accepted a modest salary. She gave much of that meagre income to the poor and left her personal property to the American Board of Foreign Missions when she died. The school itself contributed nearly seven thousand dollars to foreign missions in the last seven years that Mary was there.

Her fervor was caught by her students. Many became missionaries. Over the twelve years Mary directed the school, hundreds of women became missionaries, teachers or wives of missionaries. Twelve students went on to take the Gospel to the Indians in the western United States. Scores of pastor’s wives were trained at Mount Holyoke.

Mary suffered from overwork and bad headaches. She died at age 52 on March 5, 1849. She was buried on the mary lyon monument
Mount Holyoke Seminary grounds. A monument was erected that includes the following memorial on one of the four sides:

Servant of God, well done;
Rest from thy loved employ;
The battle fought, the victory won,
Enter thy Master’s joy.

Nineteenth century students praised Mary for many years. They caught her vision still held after so many years after Mary caught it from Joseph Emerson – that all would be to the glory of God. That Christ’s Kingdom would reign in the hearts of men and women.

I wonder how many students at Mount Holyoke think of Mary’s true goal for them as they look on her monument? I fear that many women’s colleges today have strayed from Mary’s vision. I pray that today’s female college students would turn to the Lord and His righteousness again.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                         

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 In everything I showed you that by working hard in this manner you must help the weak and remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that He Himself said, “It is more blessed to give than to receive.”     (Acts 20:35)

At the Wesleyan chapel in Seneca Falls, N.Y. in 1848, 200 women gathered to hear Elizabeth Cady Stanton read the “Declaration of Sentiments and Grievances”. This was a paper that she wrote modeled on the Declaration of Independence calling for the just treatment of women.

seneca-falls-meeting-1848-granger

Understanding that God created both men and women in His image, the preamble to their resolutions began, “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights…”  Over the last 167 years things have changed for women. Women are no longer barred from getting an education, voting, fair wages, or control of their own money. These things are in thanks to many women who struggled for fair treatment of women, and Lucretia Mott was one of the earliest.

L. MottLucretia Mott is still known today as a gifted and wise woman. Her sayings are quoted by many. Lucretia was strongly opposed to slavery, unfair treatment of women, and hypocrisy in religion. She was ahead of her time as an advocate for any of the disenfranchised in America including blacks, both slave and free, women, and the American Indians.

Lucretia Coffin Mott was born January 3, 1793 on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, the second of five children. Her parents, Thomas Coffin, Jr. and Anna Folger Coffin were members of the Society of Friends, also known as Quakers. One of the tenets of the Quakers is the essential equality of men and women. Having a strong understanding of the value and abilities of women, Thomas Coffin would see to it that his daughters were educated.

Thomas Coffin was a ship captain who could often be at sea for up to two years. Once when he was gone a long time, and feared lost, Anna Coffin became a shopkeeper to support herself and her children. Other women on Nantucket Island ran businesses to keep going while the men were away. The success of the women was proof that women were as capable as men of managing a business. This is the environment that Lucretia grew up in.

Early in life Lucretia became aware of the cruelty of slavery. She attended a Quaker boarding school at Nine L. Mott rightsPartners in New York. Her teacher, Susan Marriott, endeavored to instruct the children about the horrors of slavery. There were pictures on the classroom walls depicting the Africans in the holds of ships. Lucretia also read an account of the horrors of slavery as described by Thomas Clarkson, an English abolitionist, that was part of the school reader titled, “Mental Improvement”. These things shaped Lucretia’s life as she became one of the leading abolitionists of her time.
schoolAfter two years of schooling, Lucretia stayed on at the boarding school for an extra year to teach. While she was there she noticed that the male teachers were paid more than twice as much as the females. This rankled Lucretia and again she filed the information away in her mind until a time when she would do something about it.

While at the school, Lucretia met her future husband James Mott. At the end of her teaching year, Lucretia returned home. Her father was starting up a new business. Lucretia was missing her friend James and asked her father if he could use a good clerk. Her father quickly sized up the situation and approached James. In a few months James went to work at the Coffin’s store. In 1811, James and Lucretia married and lived in Philadelphia.

Lucretia and James had six children. One son, Thomas died as a child from a fever, but the four girls and another Thomas survived until adulthood. In 1815 Thomas Coffin died leaving the family in debt. He had signed a note for someone whose business failed not too long before he died. This meant that the Coffin’s were responsible. Undaunted, Anna Coffin started a business. Soon she was successfully taking care of her family again. Lucretia and her sister taught school to help out.

James Mott worked at a variety of businesses. He and Lucretia had made a vow to boycott products made by slaves. So James stopped selling goods made from cotton and worked in the wool industry instead.

The Meetings of the Society of Friends are somewhat different than what most of us experience in a typical Protestant church. At the Meetings the people sit silently until someone feels led by the Holy Spirit to speak. The listeners can follow up with comments or prayer.

A short time after three-year-old Thomas died, Lucretia offered a modest prayer at the Meeting. This was followed up many times and by 1821 she was recognized as a gifted speaker. The Society of Friends approved her as a minister and she became a regular preacher.

At this time the Quakers were experiencing some inner organizational struggles. Two factions eventually formed, one that was moving toward the ways of the other Protestants, and the HIcksites, named after Elias Hicks who called for the simple piety of the original Friends and their dependence on the “inner light” for counseling. After much prayer and soul-searching James and Lucretia joined the Hicksites.

Lucretia continued to preach but after seeing how the two factions split over doctrine she decided to study thefeminism_lucretia_mott_dog_tshirt tenets of the faith for herself. She no longer accepted things blindly. As she studied she slowly came to some conclusions. “Loving God was meaningless unless one also loved men – and this included strangers as well as friends. For only he that doeth right is righteous,” she concluded. This is the third area of life in which Lucretia became well known – a religious reformer. Lucretia was concerned that people would “practice what they preach” in their faith. She was not afraid to criticize leaders who didn’t.

likeness to Christ

During all of the years of her activism Lucretia was a good wife and mother. Her husband and children came first. She was so gifted and organized that she was able to run her household well while finding time for reading and her many projects.

Lucretia worked with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to put on the first annual women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. As the first time that so many women gathered to ask for equal rights it caused quite a controversy.

 

James and Lucretia Mott

James and Lucretia Mott

Among her many other accomplishments was the founding of Swarthmore College first chartered in 1864. James and Lucretia insisted that it be a coeducational college.

James Mott died in 1868. Lucretia sorrowed heavily but continued to work hard for the cause of the disadvantaged. Lucretia joined with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony to form the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869 in order to try and get an amendment to the federal constitution passed granting women the right to vote. None of these women would live to see the nineteenth amendment passed granting female suffrage but they laid the ground work that others brought to fruition.

While some women were speaking on the so-called moral superiority of women, Lucretia maintained that men and women were truly equal in all of their capacities, mental, spiritual, and moral. She worked for the day when laws would be reformed to grant women equal access to education, jobs, property rights, and control of their own money. Obtaining the right to vote was only a step on the way to changing the societal attitude toward women which left them as second-class citizens.

In 1878 at the age of 85 Lucretia attended the thirtieth anniversary of the first Seneca Falls convention. On November 11, 1880 she died in Chelton Hills, near Philadelphia, surrounded by her children and grandchildren. Many nineteenth and twentieth century reformers praise her as a woman ahead of her time, strongly advocating for the equal treatment of all of America’s citizens. We remain truly amazed at her courage for always standing up for what is right and can be very thankful for all of the freedoms that we now enjoy thanks to her diligence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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